The water frame was developed in 1767 by Richard Arkwright. It improved the quality of the thread, which meant that the cotton industry no longer depended on wool or linen to make the wrap. It also took spinning away from the home-bases to specific areas where fast-flowing streams could provide water power for the larger machines. In 1770, John Kay's flying shuttle loom, which had been invented in 1733, doubled a weaver's productivity and was widely used. In conjunction with the Spinning Frame, the shuttle loom was used in factories built in Derbyshire, Lancashire, and Scotland.
Title: Manchester and the Age of the Factory: The Business Structure of Cottonopolis in the Industrial Revolution, Beckenham: Croom Helm, 1988. 250pp.
Author: Michael Winstanley | Cambridge University Press - Journal: Urban History / Volume 16 / 1989